Kenneth Heilbron – mid-century fashion from Chicago

These days, when you think of mid-20th century fashion photography two names spring to mind: Irving Penn and Richard Avedon. Their work is now in the permanent collections of major museums and art galleries around the world, the subject of regular retrospectives and highly prized by collectors – a single print can fetch tens and even hundreds of thousands of dollars at auction, and rising.

Artwork for a Kenneth Heilbron exhibition poster
About 1960. Artwork for a Heilbron exhibition poster

But travel back in time to the 1940s and 1950s and their contemporaries may well have been bewildered at the attention garnered by Penn and Avedon given that they were just two of a host of photographers working for Vogue, Harper’s Bazaar and the other fashion magazines of the era.

There’s Lillian Bassman, who blurs and bleaches her prints in the darkroom to produce magical, high-contrast images of sylph-like models. Or Clifford Coffin, who pioneers the use of the ring-flash to dramatize his models and outline them with shadow. The work of others is perhaps less distinctive but is not just technically brilliant but totally conveys the zeitgeist – think Louise Dahl-Wolfe, John Rawlings, Gleb Derujinsky…

This is the era of European haute couture, dominated by the likes of Christan Dior, Cristóbal Balenciaga, Hubert de Givenchy, Jacques Fath and Pierre Balmain. And of Paris as the almost mythical centre of the fashion universe, immortalized in Funny Face. But while Paris grabs the fashion headlines, Europe is in a sorry state, struggling to recover from the devastation of World War II. In the US, by contrast, fortunes continue to be made, the standard of living to rise and Hollywood to cement its status as a fashion capital of the world.

In the Midwest, Marshall Field & Company of Chicago lead a host of merchants serving the newly rich and those with aspirations in that direction. Middle Americans too far away to drop by are served by the city’s major catalogue retailers – Sears and Roebuck and Montgomery Ward. And mid-20th century Chicago has its own fashion photographer too. His name is Kenneth Heilbron.

A charmed life

Christmas card artwork by Kenneth Helbron
1948. Artwork for the Heilbrons’ Christmas card

Kenneth is the second son of a prosperous millinery importer. In 1926, age 23, he is sent by his father to Paris, the city of not just of Coco Chanel, Jeanne Lanvin and Jean Patou but of Pablo Picasso, Ernest Hemingway, Josephine Baker and the Ballets Russes. He returns to Chicago with his new wife, Mildred Anderson, five years later. Years later, he recalls the Great Depression as a thing that happened to other people, never to the friends in his circle.

Anyway, he takes up photography as a means of supplementing the family income, and his talent and connections ensure success. He is chosen as a Chicago bureau photographer for Life, Time and Fortune magazines in the 1930s–40s. In 1938 he becomes the first instructor of photography at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.

Expanding into advertising and fashion photography, around the beginning of World War II the Heilbron home and studio move to the building that will later become famous as Hugh Hefner’s residence and office –the Isham mansion on State Street, where Kenneth stages portrait sittings in the grand ballroom. Although he hires laboratory assistants, he alone operates his cameras and makes prints over which he exercises absolute control.

The fashion and advertising shoots are great money-spinners and enable the Heilbrons to move to a 22-room townhouse on Wells Street in Chicago’s Old Town neighbourhood. The coach house becomes Kenneth’s photo lab, separated from his home by a private garden centred on a small lily pond. And the house itself begins to fill with American folk art, antique furniture and whole families of exotic cats, of which he took many, many photos.

Kenneth himself is quite a dandy (echoes of Norman Parkinson here). Often he dresses in custom-made Parisian clothes, and for decades, his signature look includes an ascot (a cravat) and a beret.

In 1985, the year of a retrospective at the Art Institute, the Heilbrons move to Galena, where he continues to photograph neighbours and officials. He declares himself officially retired from active picture making in 1994, three years before his death.

A man of his time

It is for his fashion photos that Kenneth features on Aenigma. His biggest client in that area seems to have been Marshall Fields, but his work also appeared in the Chicago Sun-Times (including an article about Wilhelmina) and no doubt many other magazines.

It is absolutely of its time. Like his contemporaries, Heilbron goes for naturalistic shots, often taken on location. There are some fabulous settings in Chicago – the Art Institute, the glazed upper deck of the original Equitable Building still under construction, on the street – and also in Paris.

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Feeding the pigeons

Feeding the pigeons

Around 1948. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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The New Look

The New Look

Paris, around 1948. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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Street fashion

Street fashion

Chicago, around 1946. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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By the Seine

By the Seine

Paris, around 1960. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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Rejection

Rejection

Around 1955. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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At the airport

At the airport

Around 1960. Unknown models. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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The fan

The fan

Around 1955. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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Art critics

Art critics

Chicago Art Institute, around 1960. Unknown models. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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Scooter girl

Scooter girl

Paris around 1960. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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Poster girl

Poster girl

Paris, 1959. Ivy Nicholson. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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Distracted by the news

Distracted by the news

Paris, around 1960. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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In a world of her own

In a world of her own

Paris, around 1960. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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Taken by surprise

Taken by surprise

Paris, around 1960. Ivy Nicholson. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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Coffee and colonnade

Coffee and colonnade

Paris, around 1960. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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Dancing down the steps

Dancing down the steps

Around 1962. Wilhelmina modelling a summer dress. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron

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In a hurry

In a hurry

Paris, around 1960. Ivy Nicholson. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron.

Looking at the images here, it’s clear that Heilbron had a great eye for composition (in 1939 he published a book on Composition for the Amateur), an ability to put his models at ease and the technique to capture the studied elegance of the times. He was also willing to spend hours in the darkroom coaxing subtle details into a single image he wanted to preserve. This helps to explain why many of his pictures exist as unique vintage prints.

Kenneth Heilbron fashion photo around 1962
Around 1962. Unknown model. Photo by Kenneth Heilbron.

As with Penn and Avedon, fashion was just one aspect of Heilbron’s work and he looked beyond it for less glamorous subject matter. But he didn’t go to the dark places that Avedon explored, nor did he pursue an aesthetic with the uncompromising rigour of Penn. Nevertheless, these days if he is known at all, Heilbron is admired above all for the photos he took from the late 1930s through the 1940s of Ringling Brothers Circus life and performers – shots which are both intimate and penetrating.

And those circus images bring to mind Avedon’s shoot with Dovima at the Cirque d’Hiver. Asked why he never tried to pose a model in a real circus, Heilbron replied that his clients would have found the concept unacceptable. He was hired to produce images of luxurious fantasy; however intriguing it might be, the backyard of the circus was not fashionable.

Wilhelmina – from Waller High to haute couture

Wilhelmina magazine cover
Wilhelmina was photographed for our cover by Kenneth Helbron during a recent Chicago visit. Shocking pink coat by Marusia highlights the season’s favourite makeup and nail enamel shades. Coat from Martha Weathered.

The colour supplement of the 30 May 1962 issue of The Chicago Sun-Times carried an article by Jean Neal about Wilhelmina, who also featured on the front cover.

To see some photos of her, take a look at Kenneth Heilbron – mid-century fashion from Chicago.

WILHELMINA: From Waller High To Haute Couture

IT’S A LONG trip from Waller High School to the cover of Vogue magazine, but a girl named Wilhelmina Behmenburg made it in four miraculous years. Today her face is as familiar to readers of L’Officiel, THE magazine of the French couture, as it is to McCall’s and the Ladies Home Journal. Hers is an exciting success story, but it didn’t happen over-night.

Even while she attended Waller, Wilhelmina was being interviewed, and turned down, for modeling assignments. After high school there was a job as designer-secretary in a fabric factory, some parttime convention work and constant discouragement. Neither Chicago stores nor agencies were interested in the 5-foot-10-inch German girl. She was “too big” for high fashion.

It took a job at the International Trade Fair to turn the tide. Reigning as Miss West Berlin (because her factory boss submitted her picture), Wilhelmina met Shirley Hamilton, who was then director of a local modeling agency. Miss Hamilton was the first person to recognize Wilhelmina’s potential. By this time she had to convince Wilhelmina she could become a great model if she worked at it. It meant losing weight, learning makeup and hair styling, studying, exercising and more pavement-pounding.

A few months later the “new” Wilhelmina met Chicago photographer Kenneth Heilbron. He booked her immediately for high fashion assignments. Under Heilbron’s direction she perfected her technique in front of the camera. In a few more months Chicago agencies were anxious for Wilhelmina’s services.

In the fall of 1960 she decided to return to Europe on a vacation. (Wilhelmina was born in Holland, moved to Germany as a youngster and emigrated to the United States with her parents when she was 15.) En route she stopped in New York, where she was interviewed by Eileen Ford, head of the famous modeling agency. Then she continued on to Paris.

When she arrived she was astounded to learn that she had two solid months of bookings through the Dorian Leigh agency. Chicago clients, with European branches, had alerted Miss Leigh to her arrival. She had booked Wilhelmina without ever seeing her!

Then the whirl began. Her picture appeared in high fashion publications across the continent. There were jobs in London, Paris, Munich, Berlin, on the Riviera, in Switzerland . . . in two months the name “Wilhelmina” became synonymous with high fashion.

Exactly one year ago she accepted the most exciting assignment of all. L’Official, official publication of the French haute couture, took her to the Sahara, where it photographed an entire collection of couture designs on her.

The high point of her career was almost a washout because of international entanglements. Wilhelmina and the photographic crew were held up for two weeks waiting for clearance for her to enter Algeria. (That nation specifically prohibits German citizens.) Finally, a government minister wired: “Congratulations, Wilhelmina. You are the first and last German to enter Algeria this year.”

When she returned to the United States last fall Eileen Ford immediately signed her to a contract. Her success in New York simply repeated her performance in Europe—two covers of Vogue magazine, every day crammed with bookings, every month dozens of photos in important national magazines.

Last month Wilhelmina made one of her frequent visits to her parents’ home on Lakewood Av. Her father William is a butcher and her mother, Klasina, has her old job in the fabric factory. Wilhelmina’s success has enabled her to pay the mortgage on her parents’ house, buy them a car and, next year, send them to Europe.

She is realistic about her career and about the future. She says: “I worked hard and I made it. I’ll be 23 next month and, with any luck, I can work nine or 10 more years. Most of all I want to see the world, and modeling will help me do it.”

Because of her old friendship with Kenneth Heilbron, Wilhelmina agreed to work for him and The Sun-Times during her recent visit. The photos on these pages, and on the Fashion Flair pages of The Sun-Times next week, illustrate her extraordinary talent and Heilbron’s ability to capture it.

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